1 CDC, 1997. Update: Blood Lead Levels - United States, 1991-1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 46, no. 7, February 21, 1997.

2 Brody, D.L., Pirkle, J.L., Kramer, R.A., Flegal, K.M., Matte, T.D., Gunter, E.W., Paschal, D.C., 1994. Blood lead levels in the US population: Phase 1 of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1991). J. Amer. Med. Assn. 272:277-283.

3 Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 1991. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children: A Statement by the Centers for Disease Control -October 1991. Atlanta, GA: CDC, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services.

4 National Research Council (NRC), 1993. Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children and Other Sensitive Populations. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

5 New York State Public Health Law, §1372.

6 Needleman, H.L., Schell, A., Bellinger, D., Levaton, A., Allred, E.N., 1990. The long term effects of exposure to low doses of lead in childhood: an 11-year follow-up report. N. Engl. J. Med. 322:83-88.

7 Title 10, New York Codes, Rules and Regulations ("NYCRR"), Part 67, Subpart 67-1.

8 Title 10, NYCRR, Part 67, Subpart 67-1.

9 Title 10, NYCRR, Part 67, Subpart 67-2.

10 Title 10, NYCRR, Part 67, Subpart 67-3.

11 New York State Public Health Law, §§1373, 1374 and 1375.

12 This federal regulation was mandated under the federal Lead Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992. Pre-1978 housing that is not affected by this rule includes "0-bedroom dwellings" such as lofts, efficiencies, and studios; leases of dwelling units of 100 days or fewer, such as vacation homes or short-term rentals; designated housing for the elderly and the handicapped unless children reside or are expected to reside there; and rental housing that has been inspected by a certified inspector and is found to be free of lead-based paint.

13 40 CFR Part 745

14 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 1990. Comprehensive and Workable Plan for the Abatement of Lead-Based Paint in Privately-Owned Housing: Report to Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

15 Consumers Union evaluated and reported on do-it-yourself lead testing kits in the June 1990 issue of "Consumer Reports."

16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1994. Reducing Lead Hazards When Remodeling Your Home. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

17 National Research Council, 1993.

18 Title 28, Rules of the City of New York ("RCNY"), Chapter 11.

19 New York City Health Code, Section 173.14.

20 Title 28, RCNY, Chapter 11.

21 Housing Department orders are generally issued only after a complaint has been made, and an inspection has confirmed, that a landlord has failed to repair a dangerous lead paint condition. Health Department orders are generally issued only after it has been discovered that a child has a blood lead level of 20 ug/dl or higher and an inspection has determined that there are "conditions conducive to lead poisoning" in the home that require abatement.

22 New York City Health Code, Section 173.14.

23 This is a federal action level for lead that applies only to certain studies required of public water systems, and not to individual samples from homes. Thus, we may use it as a guide, but no regulatory action is triggered if this level is exceeded in your tap water.

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